The SIOP Model
[Note: This information was partly published in the TESL Saskatchewan Newsletter (Winter, 2013); the link to the blog information wasn’t provided in the newsletter.]
The SIOP Model is a “comprehensive, well-articulated model of instruction” for teachers teaching English language learners. It was developed by researchers Jana Echevarria and Mary Ellen Vogt at California State University, Long Beach and Deborah J. Short at the Center for Applied Linguistics during the research project through the Centre for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE), a national research Center funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education from 1996 through 2003. Jana Echevarria is Professor of Education at California State University, Long Beach, and MaryEllen Vogt is Professor Emerita of Education at California State University, Long Beach while Deborah J. Short is Professional Development Consultant and Senior Research Associate at the Centre for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC.
SIOP is sometimes referred to as SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) as well. “Sheltered Instruction is an approach for teaching content to English learners (ELs) in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students’ English language development (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008).”
“The theoretical underpinning of the model is that language acquisition is enhanced through meaningful use and interaction…In effective SIOP lessons, there is high level of student engagement and interaction with the teacher, with other students, and with text, which leads to elaborated discourse and critical thinking (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008).” SIOP was at first just an observation instrument to observe and rate teachers’ lessons and their delivery, but later, it turned into the SIOP Model, which focus on the instructional practices to appropriately work with linguistically and culturally diverse groups of learner population.
How does the author of this article come to know of the SIOP Model this much?
Appreciate the opportunity for an in-depth study of the SIOP Model in 2008 while pursuing Master’s Degree in Education (TESL) at the University of Central Oklahoma, Oklahoma, US
Have successfully been incorporating this model since the beginning of 2009 at a variety of settings, including the Toronto Catholic District School Board, Seneca College, Centennial College, Camosun College and the University of Regina. Conducted action research on the use of the SIOP Model in 2011.
Have been presenting this model at local, provincial, and national level conferences
What is said about SIOP?
“ We believe, and our research confirms, that when teachers use the SIOP for their planning and teaching of English learners, high-quality and effective sheltered instruction results, and student achievement is improved (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008)”
“If teachers want their students, including Els, to grow in their academic content knowledge and English ability and leave the classroom feeling successful and excited about what they are learning, the SIOP model is a framework to consider implementing (Hanson & Filibert, 2006).”
“As an instructional framework, the SIOP Model has been instrumental in enhancing learner language skills, and developing responsible and autonomous learners. One of the conclusions that SIOP also very plays a significant role in assisting ESL teachers effectively and efficiently facilitate adult ESL classes can not be overlooked at all (Khatri, 2011: Action Research Project Discussion).”
SIOP: 8 Components and 30 Features
- Lesson Preparation
- Building Background
- Comprehensible Input
- Practice/ Application
- Lesson Delivery
- Review and Assessment
1. Lesson Preparation
- Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed with Students
- Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed
- Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background
- Supplementary Materials Used to a High Degree
- Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency
- Meaningful Activities that Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice Opportunities
2. Building Background
7. Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students’ Background Experiences
8. Links Explicitly Made between Past Learning and New Concepts
9. Key Vocabulary Emphasized (introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for students to see
3. Comprehensible Input
- Speech Appropriate for Students’ Proficiency Levels
- Clear explanation of academic tasks
- A variety of techniques used to make content concepts clear
- Ample opportunities provided for students to use learning strategies
- Scaffolding techniques consistently used, assisting and supporting student understanding
- A variety of questions or tasks that promote higher-order thinking skills
- Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion
- Grouping configurations support language and content objectives of the lesson
- Sufficient wait time for student responses consistently Provided
- Ample Opportunities for Students to Clarify Key Concepts in L1
- Hands-on Materials and /or manipulatives Provided for Students to Practice Using New Content Knowledge
- Activities Provided for Students to Apply content and Language Knowledge
- Activities That Integrate All Language Skills
7. Lesson Delivery
- Content Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery
- Language Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery
- Student Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period
- Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students’ Ability Levels
- Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary
- Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts
- Regular Feedback Provided to Students on Their Output
- Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning of All Lesson Objectives throughout the Lesson
The author is of the utmost belief that this Model, although basically suited for content-based ESL and sheltered content courses, works very well for (language) skills classes as well since it is for teachers teaching linguistically and culturally diverse students.
If you’d like the author to present this framework for your school or institution, please contact him, and he would be happy to voluntarily provide PD workshops on the SIOP Model.
Centre for Applied Linguistics. SIOP model professional development: Helping educators work effectively with English language learners. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.cal.org/siop/
Echevarria J. , Vogt M. , & Short, D.J. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model. Boston: Pearson Education.
Hanson S. & Filibert C. (2006). Teaching English learners the SIOP way: Classroom connections. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, 12-14.
Short, D., Himmel, J., Gutierrez, S., & Hudec, J. (2011). Using the SIOP Model: Professional development manual for sheltered Instruction. Washington, DC: Centre for Applied Linguistics.
Vogt, M., & Echevarria, J. (2008). 99 Ideas and activities for teaching English learners with the SIOP Model. New York, NY: Pearson Education.